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Revision as of 12:35, 29 May 2013 by RobertBerger (talk | contribs) (create a snapshot)
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what I frequently use

vim-cmd vmsvc/getallvms
mkdir /vmfs/volumes/RAID10/yocto-bone-2
vmkfstools -i /vmfs/volumes/RAID10/yocto-bone-1/yocto-bone-1.vmdk -d thin /vmfs/volumes/RAID10/yocto-bone-2/yocto-bone-2.vmdk

Note: you need to do this against the vmname.vmdk NOT the vmname-flat.vmdk. Be forwarned.

vim-cmd vmsvc/power.getstat <number>
vim-cmd vmsvc/power.on <number>
vim-cmd vmsvc/power.off <number>
ft-stats -lv

snapshots

check if there are snapshots

vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.get $VM_ID

find number of snapshots in vm

VM_ID=17
vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.get $VM_ID | egrep -- '--\|-CHILD|^\|-ROOT' | wc -l

create a snapshot

vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.create [VmId] [snapshotName] [snapshotDescription] [includeMemory] [quiesced]

e.g.

vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.create $VM_ID rber-snapshot1 "renamed machine" 0 0

remove last snapshot

VM_ID=17
SNAPSHOT_COUNT=`vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.get $VM_ID | egrep -- '--\|-CHILD|^\|-ROOT' | wc -l`
vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.remove $VM_ID false $(($SNAPSHOT_COUNT-1)) 0

remove specific snapshot

VM_ID=17
vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.remove $VM_ID <snapshot id>


restore a snapshot

VM_ID=17
vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.revert $VM_ID <snapshot id> 0

BTW you can always do something like this as well:

ssh root@YOUR_VMWARE_HOST vim-cmd vmsvc/snapshot.revert VM_ID SNAPSHOT_ID 0

ESXi 5.0

add old vm

From VSphere client:

<ip address of vm>
  Configuration tab
    Storage
      (right click) - browse Datastore
      choose the disc from where you want to add the old vm
         browse and choose the vmx file
           (right click) and add to Inventory  

Ruby vSphere Console (RVC)

from here

install

Do not install Ruby from apt-get it will not work and if you have already installed it the remove it:

    sudo bash
    apt-get --purge remove ruby-rvm


RVM is an application to manage multiple Ruby versions on a single machine. It is a helpful piece of software if you are managing multiple applications that may require different Ruby versions. Installation is fairly straight-forward and is well-documented on the RVM website. The instructions to perform a multi-user RVM install are included here.

Before starting the RVM install, you may need to install CURL if it is not already installed on the machine, do so with:

apt-get install curl

some more dependencies

apt-get install zlib1g-dev libtool curl libxslt-dev libxml2-dev sudo apt-get install libreadline-dev

Install RVM, be sure to use the command for the Multi-User Install, which is performed as follows:

    curl -L get.rvm.io | bash -s stable –auto

This will install RVM to /usr/local/rvm instead of a hidden folder in your home directory, which is what occurs during a Single-User install.

The installation of RVM will create an rvm group, you should add yourself and any users that need Ruby access on the machine to this group with

   sudo adduser [username] rvm
  source /etc/profile

Also, you will need to add to .bashrc:

    vim ~/.bashrc 

and add the following line to the end

    [[ -s "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm" ]] && source "$HOME/.rvm/scripts/rvm"

After you have added users, you need to log out and log back in since group memberships are only evaluated at login time.

RVM should be automatically configured for every user on the system.

To make sure everything worked, upon logging in again type the following:

type rvm | head -n1

You should see the following output:

rvm is a function

If you have access to another user account log in with that account and try the same command to ensure that all users have access to RVM.

You can also type:

rvm notes

to ensure that the rvm function is working.

If it doesn't work, you may want to attempt to source your bashrc with the following:

source .bashrc

and then perform the checks for RVM again.

Before installing Ruby through RVM, install the following packages through the package manager:

sudo apt-get install libruby1.8 libruby1.9 zlib1g-dev libssl-dev libreadline-dev build-essential libghc6-zlib-dev


Find the requirements (follow any instructions that are given):

rvm requirements


Note that whenever you upgrade RVM, always run rvm notes and rvm requirements to obtain additional details on changes to RVM.

You can list all the available Rubies for installation by typing

rvm list


Install Ruby 1.9.x (the current version is 1.9.3). This may take awhile:

rvm install ruby-1.9.3

Once installed, set this version of ruby as the default for the entire machine with

rvm use 1.9.3 --default

You can confirm this worked by typing

ruby --version
    gem install rvc
    gem install ffi

add rvc to your path:

vim ~/.profile

add to it:

# add path to rvc
PATH="/usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/bin:$PATH"

If you run it now you get the following error:

root@main-1-X61s-64-bit:~# rvc 
/usr/local/rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p327/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9.1/rubygems/custom_require.rb:36:in `require': cannot load such file -- readline (LoadError)
        from /usr/local/rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p327/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9.1/rubygems/custom_require.rb:36:in `require'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/gems/rvc-1.7.0/lib/rvc/completion.rb:21:in `<top (required)>'
        from /usr/local/rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p327/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9.1/rubygems/custom_require.rb:36:in `require'
        from /usr/local/rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p327/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9.1/rubygems/custom_require.rb:36:in `require'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/gems/rvc-1.7.0/lib/rvc.rb:30:in `<top (required)>'
        from /usr/local/rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p327/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9.1/rubygems/custom_require.rb:36:in `require'
        from /usr/local/rvm/rubies/ruby-1.9.3-p327/lib/ruby/site_ruby/1.9.1/rubygems/custom_require.rb:36:in `require'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/gems/rvc-1.7.0/bin/rvc:21:in `<top (required)>'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/bin/rvc:19:in `load'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/bin/rvc:19:in `<main>'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/bin/ruby_noexec_wrapper:14:in `eval'
        from /usr/local/rvm/gems/ruby-1.9.3-p327/bin/ruby_noexec_wrapper:14:in `<main>'

You may need to install libreadline. Once installed, you will also have to reinstall your Ruby through rvm. The process is simple, but may take awhile since you have to reinstall Ruby. Perform the following at the command line:

apt-get install libreadline-dev
rvm remove 1.9.3
rvm install 1.9.3
rvm use 1.9.3 --default
gem install 'rb-readline'

exit the root shell

exit

use it

Check also here and here

rber@main-1-X61s-64-bit:~$ sudo bash
[sudo] password for rber: 
root@main-1-X61s-64-bit:~# source /etc/profile
root@main-1-X61s-64-bit:~# source ~/.bashrc
root@main-1-X61s-64-bit:~# rvc
Host to connect to (user@host): root@<ip-addr>
password: 
Welcome to RVC. Try the 'help' command.
VMRC is not installed. You will be unable to view virtual machine consoles. Use the vmrc.install command to install it.
0 /
1 <ip-addr>/
0 /
1 <ip-addr>/
> cd 1
/<ip-addr>> ls
0 ha-datacenter (datacenter)
/<ip-addr>> ls 0/vms
0 Windows 7 Ult 64-bit: poweredOn
1 ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-master: poweredOff
2 ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave1: poweredOff
3 ub-12.04-i386-srv-eldk-armv5te: poweredOff
4 ub-12.04-amd64-desk-lf331: poweredOff
5 ub-12.04-i386-srv-gateone: poweredOn
6 CentOS63-64-HP: poweredOff
7 Eclipse-Ubuntu-10.10: poweredOff
8 Yocto-1.1-ARM-Ubuntu-10.10: poweredOff
9 Yocto-Ubuntu-10.10: poweredOff
10 ub-12.04-i386-srv-eldk-armv7a: poweredOff
11 ub-12.04-i386-srv-yocto-armv7a: poweredOff
12 ub-12.04-i386-desk-eldk-armv7a: poweredOn
/<ip-addr> i 0
path: /<ip-addr>/ha-datacenter/vms/Windows 7 Ult 64-bit
name: Windows 7 Ult 64-bit
note: username/password
vcenter/vcenter
host: ha-datacenter/host/esxi-server-1.localdomain/esxi-server-1.localdomain
tools: guestToolsRunning
hostname: vcenter-PC (192.168.44.21)
VC UUID: 5274983424-e842-9257-63abd-9732898173578094
power: poweredOn
cpus: 1
memory: 2048 MB
nics:
 ethernet-0: "VM Network" connected 00:0a:25:43:dd:e7 <ip-addr-1>
storage:
 RAID10: committed=21.58 GB uncommitted=2.10 GB unshared=21.58 GB
/192.168.44.20> 
/192.168.44.20/ha-datacenter/datastores/RAID10/vms> vm.on 0
PowerOnVM Windows 7 Ult 64-bit: success

ESXi 4.1

command line

from: ESXi 4.1 command line awesomeness

data stores

cd /vmfs/volumes

Get a list of all VMs on the Hypervisor

~ # vim-cmd vmsvc/getallvms
Vmid                  Name                                                          File                                           Guest OS     Version   Annotation
16     Yocto-ARM-Ubuntu-10.10                [datastore1] Yocto-Ubuntu-10.10/Yocto-Ubuntu-10.10.vmx                               ubuntuGuest   vmx-07              
32     Yocto-RouterStationPro-Ubuntu-10.10   [datastore1] Yocto-RouterStationPro-Ubuntu-10/Yocto-RouterStationPro-Ubuntu-10.vmx   ubuntuGuest   vmx-07              
48     Yocto-1.1-ARM-Ubuntu-10.10            [datastore1] Yocto-1.1-ARM-Ubuntu-10.10/Yocto-1.1-ARM-Ubuntu-10.10.vmx               ubuntuGuest   vmx-07              
64     Eclipse-Ubuntu-10.10                  [datastore1] Eclipse-Ubuntu-10.10/Eclipse-Ubuntu-10.10.vmx                           ubuntuGuest   vmx-07              
80     LF_CENTOS60_32                        [datastore1] LF_CENTOS60_32/LF_CENTOS60_32.vmx                                       rhel6Guest    vmx-07              
~ # 

Notice the vmid. That vmid is used in many commands that follow when you want to perform actions on individual VMs.

Check which Physical NICS are up

There are a few commands in the esxcfg-* family that are used to configure the hypervisor network. For example, if you want to see which NICs have network connections, you can use:

~ # esxcfg-nics -l
Name    PCI           Driver      Link Speed     Duplex MAC Address       MTU    Description                   
vmnic0  0000:02:00.00 bnx2x       Up   1000Mbps  Full   d8:d3:85:da:f8:30 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic1  0000:02:00.01 bnx2x       Down 0Mbps     Half   d8:d3:85:da:f8:34 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic2  0000:02:00.02 bnx2x       Up   9000Mbps  Full   d8:d3:85:da:f8:31 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic3  0000:02:00.03 bnx2x       Down 0Mbps     Half   d8:d3:85:da:f8:35 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic4  0000:02:00.04 bnx2x       Down 0Mbps     Half   d8:d3:85:da:f8:32 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic5  0000:02:00.05 bnx2x       Down 0Mbps     Half   d8:d3:85:da:f8:36 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic6  0000:02:00.06 bnx2x       Down 0Mbps     Half   d8:d3:85:da:f8:33 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet
vmnic7  0000:02:00.07 bnx2x       Down 0Mbps     Half   d8:d3:85:da:f8:37 1500   Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II 57711E/NC532i 10Gigabit Ethernet

Notice that only vmnic0 and vmnic2 are up. This mostly has to do with the way I configured my blades with the Flex-10 Virtual connect. (A feature of HP Blades). If I am now to configure the network, its best that I do only vmnic0 and vmnic2 since they’re the only ones that have a link. For you Linux masters out there, there’s no ‘service network status’ nor restart that you can do. It just always seems to be on.

Creating a quick network connection

Since we know vmnic2 is up, let’s make a connection to it so that we can SSH into it, or at least ping out of it:

# add vSwitch1
esxcfg-vswitch-a vSwitch1
# link vSwitch1 to vmnic2 as an uplink
esxcfg-vswitch -L vmnic2 vSwitch1
# add the DATA portgroup to this switch
esxcfg-vswitch -A DATA vSwtich1
# uplink DATA to vmnic2
esxcfg-vswitch -M vmnic2 -p DATA vSwitch1
# put DATA on VLAN70
esxcfg-vswitch -v 70 -p DATA vSwitch1

Create a new vmdk and add to existing VM

Here we have a VM (vmid 32 ) that we want to add a 60GB vmdk to. We run:

# create the 60GB hard drive in foo's directory
vmkfstools -c 60G /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/foo/newfoo.vmdk
# add the disk to foo's inventory. (The 0 and 1 is the scsi ID numbers
vim-cmd vmsvc/device.diskaddexisting 32 /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/foo/newfoo.vmdk 0 1

Check/Toggle VM power stat

You can turn nodes off and on and check power status. You need to know the vmid as shown above.

get power stat:

~ # vim-cmd vmsvc/power.getstat 16
Retrieved runtime info
Powered off

turn on:

~ # vim-cmd vmsvc/power.on 16
Powering on VM:
~ # vim-cmd vmsvc/power.getstat 16
Retrieved runtime info
Powered on

turn off:

~ # vim-cmd vmsvc/power.off 16
Powering off VM:
~ # vim-cmd vmsvc/power.getstat 16
Retrieved runtime info
Powered off

Add the Physical USB Device to a VM

If you want to add the USB device that’s plugged into the physical machine to the virtual machine with vmid 16 you can do this:

#make sure usbarbitrator is started
/etc/init.d/usbarbitrator start
# add to vmid 16
vim-cmd vmsvc/device.connusbdev 16 "path:1/0/0 autoclean:1"

Note that the VM should be powered off when you do this for best results.

Register a VM to the Hypervisor

If you copied all the vmx and vmdk files to an ESXi 4.1 hypervisor you can simply register them with that hypervisor and turn them on:

vim-cmd solo/registervm /vmfs/volumes/datastore1/foo/foo.vmx
# then turn it on using the stuff in tip ''Check/Toggle VM power stat''!

Enable SSH from the command line

This is an easy one:

/etc/init.d/TSM-SSH start

Add the license to the ESXi 4.1 hypervisor

This came up in a few places and I already documented it in this blog, but figured I’d do it again. If you have a license and you want to add it to your hypervisor because its about to expire in 1 day you can log in and just run:

vim-cmd vimsvc/license --set XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXXXX-XXX11

Writing output to main console

In your kickstart files, you may want to redirect output to the main console that people watch as an installation takes place. This is /dev/tty2. Therefore, if in your kickstart file you are cloning a vmdk using vmdkfstools, you can let people see how the progress is going by just piping it out. Here’s an example:

vmkfstools -i $DATASTOREREMOTE/stage/stage.vmdk -d zeroedthick $DATASTOREOTHER/new/new.vmdk | tee -a /dev/tty2

This is cool in that you’ll see the percentage points pop up as you go along. The thing to remember is that you’ll have to send some carriage return escape sequences a la echo -e “\r\n” to line things up better.

shut down esx server

When virtual machines are running, ESX/ESXi might not clear the RAID controller's cache if you shut down or reboot ESX/ESXi host.

halt

reboot esx server

When virtual machines are running, ESX/ESXi might not clear the RAID controller's cache if you shut down or reboot ESX/ESXi host

reboot -f

clone an existing vm

The vm you want to clone needs to be shut down.

mkdir /vmfs/volumes/RAID10/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave2
vmkfstools -i /vmfs/volumes/RAID10/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave1/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave1.vmdk /vmfs/volumes/RAID10/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave2/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave2.vmdk

You should see:

Destination disk format: VMFS zeroedthick
Cloning disk '/vmfs/volumes/RAID10/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave1/ub-12.04-i386-srv-Jenkins-slave1.vmdk'...
Clone: 100% done.

more cloning

command line mixed with GUI

install a new vmware image

copy over a tarball:

scp Ubuntu-11-10-64.tar.gz root@192.168.42.101:/vmfs/volumes/4d1af7b7-24fc54d4-e347-1cc1de804514

unpack the tarball on ESXi server:

tar xzvf Ubuntu-11-10-64.tar.gz

fix permissions on ESXi server:

chown -R root:root Ubuntu-11-10-64

you need to clone it on ESXi server otherwise it does not seem to work:

mkdir LF-Ubuntu-11-10-64
vmkfstools -i Ubuntu-11-10-64/Ubuntu-11-10-64.vmdk LF-Ubuntu-11-10-64/LF-Ubuntu-11-10-64.vmdk

Now from VSphere just create a Virtual Machine (custom settings) and when the wizard gets to the step for hard drive(s), just say "use existing" instead of "create new", and point to the vmdk file you have in /LF-Ubuntu-11-10-64.

on laptop

Lenovo W530

some more links

manage without VI client

esxi ssh cli commands

esxguide

cli commands part 1

Start and Manage a VM Without Using vSphere Client